In the graph the Universe has 5 dimensions of space-time, which are the dimensions we need to build all realities. 3 Dimensions of space-time which are the canonical dimensions of length, width and height and its perception as motions=function in time; and the two ‘lost’ dimensions of the scalar Universe; the dimension of pure time motions, when ‘wholes desegregate into smaller faster parts’ (4th dimension of entropy) and the inverse 0-1 dimension of pure space-form, which creates from a seminal or linguistic form the whole.
The result of adding both – the life and the death processes – in any system or scale of reality is a ‘zero-sum’ of information+entropy that cyclically returns reality to its initial form, in a dynamic, multiple steady state balance that affects any entity of reality. The study of that process of creation and dissolution of complex structures, however, cannot be made with translational time, (v=S/T), the realm of physics, but it needs to understand biological, morphological time – the life/death cycle and its 3±1 ages. Those ages explain precisely what physicists, stuck in the study of time as movement in space, will never understand: the meaning of the life and death cycle that creates and extinguishes humans, societies (super-organisms of human beings) and all kind of beings that exist in space and time. In biological time all universal species follow the same ‘morphological changes’, described by the wisdom of verbal thought as the 3±1 ages of life, each one ruled by one of the 3±1 change=time:
+1: Conception: ruled by social evolution, as a micro-organism or cell transcends into a macro-organism, organized by social networks.
1st age: Youth or Age of energy.
2nd age: energy and information Reproduce.
3rd age: All energy becomes information.
-1:Death: The inverse of conception when the super-organism dissolves back into cells.
In the graph we describe that law of 3±1 ages, cycles, or horizons of evolutions for the fundamental species of reality. To understand that cycle in depth, we have to recall the Law of Complementarity between energy and information: all systems are made with a body/field of energy and a head/particle of information.
Further on, since form is made with energy, all events must start with an amount of ‘simple’ energy that transforms itself into information, the only other primary direction/arrow of time to go. Then, when all energy is consumed, warped into information, death reverses its cycle. Yet in the middle of that cycle, when information and energy are in balance, to preserve the ‘bio-logic’ form created in that process, the system achieves its reproduction.
And so the ‘offspring’ of the being will carry on its information into the future. Information never disappears as it always recreates itself.
All beings, from fundamental particles, (electrons and quarks) to human beings and life species, reproduce or are reproduced by more complex systems, when they have extra-energy to imprint its in-form-ation. Since forms that do not reproduce, die away and become extinct. So even those deconstructed beings that cannot reproduce alone are reproduced by other species. For example, cells reproduce carbohydrates, galaxies reproduce stars and human reproduce machines in factories. Thus, we talk of 3±1 drives, arrows or ages of existence in all systems: the drive for body energy, the drive for information, the drive for reproduction and the drive of social d=evolution (birth and death of a macro-organism). Whereas the 3±1 ages of Organic Time are merely the order in which those 3±1 drives ‘accumulate’ during the life/death cycle of any species.
In a young first age, energy is more abundant. In the mature age of balance, the species reproduces, combining energy and information. In the third age of the species, energy is scarce but information is abundant, accumulated in the first ages.
Young people are full of energy. They are in the Energy horizon of the species. They are bigger, have little temporal knowledge. They are simple in form. While Old people are full of information. They are in the information horizon of the species. They are smaller, as all information systems are and have a lot of temporal memories. They move little and have a lot of wrinkles.
Mature people balance the two elements of the organic Universe, their content of energy-space and temporal information. So they can reproduce all their components. Hence the 2nd age is the age of reproduction. And the forms of any being in that mature age are a harmonic, an efficient combination of energy lines and informative cycles that we perceive as ‘beautiful’, the objective perception of harmony between energy and information, lines and cycles. So in all organisms the mature, realistic, classic age of balance, or reproductive age, is the most perfect age. Human beings intuitively see that. We like balanced, spiral galaxies, mature people and realist art, which is called classic art and takes place in the mature age of civilizations.
Yet, the dominant arrow of time, information, will finally exhaust energy, warp totally the organism and bring its explosive death. And the cycle will start again.
It follows that a true science of life and time will try to maintain any organism in its age of balance, without excessive information. Exactly the contrary of what our society does. Since humans accumulate scientific and technological information towards a point or ‘singularity’ in which that information, in the form of a robot or artificial intelligence, might extinguish us.
In the graphs, we illustrate those 3±1 ages with a few universal examples, also from social sciences: we see the process in individual human beings, in art, the collective brain of a culture; in matter, where those ages are called the states of matter – energetic gas, reproductive liquid and informative solid.
Finally in the Universe, where stars evolve from an age of energy into an informative age as black holes.
So do galaxies that evolve from energetic nebulae into Black Holes, which explode into quasars. Finally, if the network of galaxies we call the Universe was truly born from a first seed of matter that fed and reproduced its form in the energy of the vacuum; it will go through 3±1 self-similar ages described by the 3 solutions to Einstein’s Space-time equations. Since all in the Universe is a game of ‘3’ dimensions or ages of time: past, the age of energy, present, the reproductive age in which all systems repeat themselves to keep their ‘present form’ beyond death and a 3rd age, when all energy is exhausted, trans-form-ed into form, information:
In the graph, when we applied the laws of the scientific method, WITHOUT REDUCTIONISM OF THE ELEMENTS OF REALITY WE CONSIDER, as big-bang theorists do (limiting time to a single entropy arrow, limiting space to a continuous spacetime, limited to study ONLY interstellar space and discharge implosive galactic vortices), the Universe is eternal and big-bangs are likely only galactic big-bangs as Fred Hoyle wanted, which release dark entropy through the axis of black holes and expands space, balanced by the constant contraction by gravitational forces of space into mass.
What big-bang theories miss is the ‘fractal structure of the Universe’, which allows it to wobble – that is while entropic intergalactic space expands, and they got it right with its equations, AS THE SPACE-TIME of the Universe is fractal, this is compensated by the implosive, informative only attractive gravitational warping of galaxies towards central black holes. So the world cycle of galaxies compensates the entropic death of quasars. In the next graph we see the ‘missed’ 3 ages of life-death of galaxies into dark, heavy dense matter, which shrinks the Universe.
So we can define it as an eternal, immortal Universe:It is then clear that when a galaxy dies, as a quasar, or when the black hole, emits pure space accelerated through its axis, interstellar space expands and we see that as a redshift but in the plane of the galaxy, slowly vacuum space collapses into denser particles, shrinking space-time. Ergo there is no need for a cosmic big-bang, a hyperbolic exaggeration created using a lineal equation ‘Vhod’ moving it to a remote past of which there is scanty evidence, as we show when studying in detail the theme in our posts on astrophysics.
The 3 evolutionary horizons of species.
The graph thus show that ALL species follow also the young, predator, reproductive radiation, and informative, height growth of the 3 ages of life, and then either they evolve further into social organisms (ants, bees, humans) and as wholes in a higher ∆+1 scale survive better, or they become extinct by a new generation.
The creation of a new species takes place according to the same 3 ages of any space-time field that become the 3 horizons of any species: after conception that creates ‘a seed’ of pure information and minimal spatial energy, species go through a young age of energy growth that creates ‘big species’; a mature, reproductive age of forms in balance between its energy and information when the species maximizes its reproduction, radiating in huge numbers; and a third horizon of informative evolution when it diversifies into multiple sub-species, becoming finally extinguished, (the equivalent to the death of any organism), or creating a new top predator form, a ‘son species’ that will restart a new cycle of life.
+1: Birth: max. T. The black hole paradox (conception).
The ‘black hole’ age of any species is parallel to the informative, genetic conception of any organism born out of a ‘seed’ that packs the maximum genetic information in the minimal space. It is caused by the slight dominance of temporal information (quantic time) over spatial energy (quantic space). So a new top predator species is born with a lot of new, genetic information packed in a reduced size (Max. T=Min. E). This happens because information is processed faster in smaller spaces.
For example, a ‘logic instruction’ is resolved faster in smaller chips. It follows that tiny species with huge numbers of ‘neurons’ create quantic actions faster than slow, bigger species. And since they are highly informative, they can coordinate those quantic actions in herds that act simultaneously as a single organism. So their S-T force that defines a top predator is higher in each quantic action of space-time that the ‘slow actions’ of a big body. Thus small English boats shooting faster against big galleons defeated the Spanish Armada; a pack of wolfs kill slow reins and herds of orcas kill bigger whales. Small, intelligent top predator brains rule bigger, less informative bodies, because time dominates space, information dominates and shapes energy.
Thus men, the most informative animals, are the Earth’s top predators; black holes, which have maximum gravitational information, are the top predators of the Universe and chips rule machines.
I Horizon: Energy Age: max. E: Top Predators and Extinctions
In their youth, carbohydrates (fats), worms (planarians), echinoderms, cephalopods, fishes, amphibians, mammals and chipped machines grew into energetic, lineal or planar, big top predators
A newborn, small foetus grows very fast in size as it multiplies its cells. By homology a new species is born as a small, informative, complex being that latter grows in spatial size during its energetic youth becoming a, lineal, energetic, big top predator species, that feeds on less evolved forms.
Thus after conception, young fishes grew into big sharks of linear forms; after the polemic Homo Floresiensis invented technology the next Homo Sapiens with an extensive fossil record were big, energetic Neanderthals;the 1st big molecules of life were fat carbohydrate chains of linear form; the 1st insects acquired soon gigantic bodies in the Carboniferous; after chips were born as small machines placed in PCs and toys, the first robots they control are big tool-machines and huge weapons of mass destruction, lineal missiles and planes, that kill human beings.
II Horizon: Evolution or Age of balance and reproduction: max. Sp x Tƒ. Radiations of species.
Then, the species finds a balance between form and energy and it reproduces in massive radiations: carbohydrates gave birth to amino acids with a nitrogen, informative atom on its ‘relative Head’; sharks gave way to balanced tubular fishes; brachycephalic Neanderthals gave way to dolichocephalic Cro-Magnons that multiplied and colonized all continents; while young giant stars acquire the balanced size of yellow suns, the commonest of all stars.
III Horizon: Evolution or Age of information: Max. Tƒ: max. Evolutionary differentiation.
Species grow in height or acquire cyclical forms, as they evolve through their 2nd and 3rd horizons, improving their sensorial, informative skills: Nucleotides become the top predator life molecules, echinoderms change to cyclical forms, fishes organize their networks in the dimension of height, amphibians become round, improving its smell, saurian and mammals become biped.
The main difference between organisms and species happens in their 3rd age, due to the discontinuous nature of the individual ‘cells’ of species, which do not become extinguished unlike the tightly controlled cells of organic systems, dominated by nervous, informative systems that exhaust and warp totally their energy, till the organism collapses.
Instead species continue evolving, creating new, complex species with more information, growing in the dimension of height. So the Homo Sapiens evolves ever more complex technological tools; the nucleotide appears when it adds informative depth to the amino acid (with an informative, nitrogen ring and an energetic sugar ring); the yellow sun becomes a neutron star of higher gravitational, informative density; while insects develop a growing brain capacity and bees and ants appear.
– (±∆): Extinction Vs Evolution into super-organisms. The scales of the Universe.
Thus, organisms dominated by their informative networks, which consumes the energy of the system very fast, die sooner than species, according to a clock set by the rate at which energy is metabolised, ‘in-formed’, by their nervous system. While species, which are dominated by the individuals and the herds survive for eons with 3 basic strategies according to the ‘ternary plan’:
– Max. Sp: Creating balanced, trophic pyramids that maintain always a supply of new victims.
– S=T: Diversifying their individual forms into new species, instead of ‘degenerating’ into a warped space-time field. It is a parallel strategy to the reproduction of an organism, which in this manner survives his own death. Thus we talk of ‘son species’ that create evolutionary, genealogical trees similar to those of any organism.
However son species tend to kill-extinct the mother species, feeding on their energy. We call that fact, the Oedipus paradox. So mammals killed reptiles, men killed mammals and robots might kill human beings. While the different generations of an organism work together, creating informative networks between them that shape herds and families.
– Max. Tƒ: Species also evolve socially their individual forms into super-organisms, thanks to the creation of informative networks and languages that integrate them into a whole, bigger form, which is more powerful than the individuals of a herd.
Organisms are dominated by informative, nervous or hormonal networks that pack closely individual cells of max. information in min. space; while species extend over wider space ecosystems in which they share a min. quantity of information, as individuals of species hardly relate to each other beyond the reproductive couple or the hunting herd. And yet, both go through the same 3 ages of space-time defined by the inverse properties of the energetic youth (max.S=min.T) that defines the herd and the informative old age (Max. T=Min. Sp) which defines the organism.
Hence we consider that the creation of super-organisms is the final evolutionary stage of a herd of individuals from the same species: each individual of the herd becomes then a ‘relative cell of the body’ of the macro-organism. While the specific language of communication and information of the species becomes the relative nervous/informative network of the super-organism, as pheromones do in anthills or nervous impulses did with cells in the Pre-Cambrian ageor financial and verbal languages are doing among humans in History.
So evolution is indeed limited by the most iterated elements of reality and this blog (: those 3 timespace motions/forms: lineal motion in space or ‘distance’, implosive motion that becomes cyclical time clocks carrying its frequency ‘information’ and its space-time, wave-like, reproductive energetic combinations. They were understood in Asian religions as yang, yin and qi-energy. They are the only 3 topologies of space-time possible in a 4D or 5D Universe (when we ad its scales), so they assembly forming all space-time beings.Below we order them in space first and then its symmetry in time:
Γ: $t (potential fields/limbs of lineal motion) < §‡: iterative energetic body-waves>sð: informative particle-heads…
Now the way we order them is different for the generator, which will be the ‘fundamental formal group’ of reality, whose combinations become variations and species ‘allowed’ by reality, which we shall try to embed within a 5D generator, fractal equation, whose iterations will create reality.
Those 3 paradoxes between reality and the mind’s perception of it are essential to make sense of the structure of the Universe and all its parts and amazingly enough given the enormous wealth of data humans have on those scales, on all their topologies and on the duality of motion and form, they are conceptually still messy, which means the associated concepts of time and space, dimension and motion, form and function, energy, entropy and information, particle, wave, perception, mind, etc. etc. are nowhere to be properly defined in any language, mathematical, logic or verbal, visual or formal as we shall do in this blog.
But the mind we cannot perceive together motion in time from form in space.
So for a non-subjective view of reality, we need to consider beyond the mind’s limitations, for each basic form of space in the Universe, a similar motion in time.
And as there are 3 canonical single dimensions (length, width, height) and its equivalent TOPOLOGICAL forms in bidimensional space, flat, hyperbolic and spherical shapes, we must consider 3 equivalent motions in time, we shall call lineal motion, hyperbolic reproductive wave-like motion and informative, cyclical vortices of motion.
And show you that with those 3s=3t forms=functional motions we can construct all the super organisms of space-time of the Universe including human beings, as perceived in a single space-time plane continuum.
Yet before we bring the subjective mind bias, we shall jump ahead and consider an objective description of the ‘dimensions of space-time’ that can be deduced from those 3 dualities of parts and wholes (continuous vs. discontinuous), lineal vs. cyclical geometries, and the duality of forms in space vs. motions in time.
We shall see how mathematically all this is reflected in the best linguistic mirror of space, as it considers the 0-1 unit sphere in terms of temporal probabilities Isomorphic to the 1-∞ plane in terms of spatial populations (Measure theory). In essence, the o-1 ‘phase’ of palingenesis and temporal evolution, is really a fractal process of growth, from the o-seed through its creation of fractal physiological networks that command the motion, energy and information of the future system, till it is born as a 1-dimensional being, with those ternary networks, emerging in the ∆+1 world.
So we can distinguish in this emerging process from ∆-1>∆º, first the formation of a first quanta, or finitesimal unit of any future super organism of space-time, the original seed, which fulfils the whole process of creation and emergence; and label this 0-1 Dimensional growth the INFORMATIVE state of the being, with MAXIMAL TIME SPEED, as cyclical time clocks store the information of the system in the frequency and form of its cycles.
It is this process of emergence, the one of maximal order and information of the system, and as such more seeds of information when emerging, have the maximal density of information, from rays of light that start in the blue star color of maximal frequency of information, to the prophet, seed of a memetic civilisation, to the genetic seed that will develop a program of emergent palingenesis.
It is this process of emergence of information, of creation of an ∆º new scale of reality the less understood and more important to grasp the whys of the Universe as a reproductive fractal of information
And so a posteriori when born the seed will be dominant in the spherical particle/head and become the linguistic whole, the singularity-mind that will guide the super organism through its ‘present phase’ of 3 ages of existence, connected through the sensorial enclosing membrane with the outer world, establishing the exchanges of energy and information with that ‘entire reality of multiple scales – the 5th dimension proper’ or ‘world’ of the T.œ (time-space organism).
As such the 0-1§ð dimension now converted into the particle-head of information (1D) in present space, is the focus of a perceptive spatial mapping, embodies the awareness of the whole in the Aristotelian sense – acting as an unmoved God/center that controls and makes emerge a whole being.
We shall with the proper definition of those o’x-1,2,3-4 & 5 (world) dimensions, construct all the systems and events of reality, whose spatial simultaneous structure as a super organism of space and its sequential order in time through a world cycle.
In the graph, we see those 5 dimensions of time ordered in the world cycle of existence, the main focus of time studies in every stientific planet of the Universe (: except this one where ‘scientists’ work in 1 time dimension – the 4th of entropy, which they confuse often with the 1st of motion – But they think they know 0 children (of thought) are always very arrogant ): OK, enough quip (:
Being serious about the most serious theme of reality – the cycle of 0-1D generation, existence as an ensemble of 3 parts, 1,2,3D within a larger ∆+1 5D world, that ends in a 4D entropic extinction, which defines tautologically all what exists, existed and will exist, all events and forms of analysis with all stiences of reality – we shall establish according to the previous graph, a clear classification of those dimensions (which I apologise is not followed in all texts.
The proper ‘naming’ of those dimensions vary as i have been written 30 years for myself and changed many times knowing it was for my self, but now as i come to my fourth dimension rushing into ordering it in this blog, different names.
The formalism that should stand though is the one written in this post (the central post) and those on the second line of main formal, logic stiences, maths and existential algebra, as those are/should be the best done by now. If my entrance in 4D is delayed I will keep correcting all texts to this ‘final format’ for centuries to come).
II. PHILOSOPHY OF ‘STIENCE’
‘God is the seer of time’ Saint Augustine, verbal creationist.
‘God is a clocker who waited 5000 years to find and intelligence like his, to understand his clock-work’ Kepler, digital creationist.
‘Each (fractal Non-E Point) is a world in itself, Leibniz, space-time realist.
Space ≈ Time. Luis Sancho, on the fundamental symmetry of the Universe.
In the next graph we see those scalar dimension from the organic/network perspective of self-sorganization of parts into social wholes, giving birth to super organisms, the ‘symmetric concept in space’ of those 3 ages in time:
The Universe and all its parts are Timespace organisms that reproduce information, stored in the form and frequency of its time clocks, through the vital motions of its 3 space-time dimensions and 2 ± ‘∆’ scalar dimensions of entropy that dissolve the networks of information of an entity, scattering them in the process of death, and emergence, which evolves those networks socially from a group of smaller parts into a whole. Without those 2 ‘organic’ dimensions that relate the different ‘scales’ of size in space and speed of time clocks of each ‘fractal part’ of the Universe, we cannot make sense of its organic process of creation and extinction
“Space and time of itself sink in shadows. Only its union exists.” Minkowski. On ð♥$: ðime-$pace §ymmetries”
“I only know I know nothing” Aristotle, =father of the experimental method.
‘Each (fractal Non-E) point is a world in itself” Leibniz, a close second, father of relational space-time.
‘The earth moves but doesn’t move’ Galileo, father of time-space relativity
“Leibniz is right, there are infinite clocks of time in the Universe, but of so we have to restart science from scratch’ Einstein, father of General Relativity.
“Historically, much of fundamental physics has been concerned with discovering the fundamental particles of nature and the equations which describe their motions and interactions. It now appears that a different program may be equally important: to discover the ways that nature allows, and prevents, information to be expressed and manipulated, rather than particles to move. (….) To conclude with, I would like to propose a more wide-ranging theoretical task: to arrive at a set of principles like energy and momentum conservation, but which apply to information.’
Steane, on the Duality of time arrows
This blog seeks to achieve the goals of Einstein and Steane – by defining a Universe of relational space-time beings, departing from two time arrows, lineal spatial motion also called lineal momentum and cyclical temporal information measured, by angular momentum, which combine to form the ∞ beings of vital energy of the Universe.
A Universe of relational space-time organisms.
Let us then consider what of the 3 traditional theories about the substances of which reality are made, is more objective, scientific and real – a Universe created by the will of verbal God (Abrahamic religions), a Universe composed of abstract mathematical objects similar to machines, (Platonic physical philosophies of reality) or a Universe made of relational, ‘organic’ space-time.
The only scientific philosophy: organicism.
First regarding the structure of the Universe the question to define, if we set aside ‘verbal religious creationism is simple: What is the Universe – an organism or a mechanism?
The mechanical answer came first, but has the problem that a machine needs a maker to be put in motion. WHILE an organism is self-reproductive. Why then we didn’t accept reality as organic?
First because we used machines to measure it and so our natural ego, believed machines were the model.
Then because with a simple concept of time=change as merely the change in the lineal motion of beings, we don’t have enough elements to construct and organic system.
So the organic paradigm has taken longer to be formalised, as we do in this blog, because it requires to ad to the motions in space studied by physicists, the arrow of in-formation, of form, stored in the form and frequency of the clocks of time cycles of reality, which are along its lineal motions in space the two elements that conform all realities, by combining and integrating into ‘vital energy systems’.
Those 3 arrows spreading across different scales of size, which add 2 more space-time dimensions of ‘wholes and parts’ to the mix, will allow us to describe all what exists as an organism of space-time, the long-seeked ‘sound organic philosophy of science’, reflected in the next graph:
In the graph, to the 3 conserved elements of Nature, angular momentum akin to a time cycle, lineal motion akin to a space surface and its combinations of vital energy, which suffice to ‘construct’ most systems of nature, with ‘lineal Limbs/potentials < hyperbolic body-waves > spherical particle-heads,we just need to ad two organic arrows of life emergence from a lower scale of reality and its inverse arrow of entropic scattering and dissolution to define all systems of nature as organic systems ensemble of those 3 parts, which follow a world cycle of life and death between generation an extinction.
Indeed, all what you see are forms with motion that combine. And while physicists have reached an extraordinary dexterity calculating the motions in space of beings; only when we ad those other type of motions=changes in space-time we understand how they trans-form and evolve through generation into new forms of in-form-ation. This is the basis of the formal model of this blog, the ‘eternal philosophy of science’, we call ‘organicism’, which understands the Universe as a system that reproduces information.
Such model is vastly more explanative of reality than the mechanical abstract models dominant in the tradition of physical sciences for a few basic reasons:
- Only an organism replicates itself without the concourse of a ‘maker of the machine’ – God in the earlier physicists’ view, now obsolete. As machines do not reproduce.
- Only the definition of time as the substance of reality – cyclical motion that reproduces form allows the Universe to move, as only if motion=time is the ultimate substance the Universe never stops.
- Only if it is cyclical, repetitive, there are laws of science which are precisely those repetitive motions.
- Finally we know since Relativity that there are infinite clocks of time with different speeds (we knew it always just looking at the clocks of nature, but the expansion of physicists’ way of measuring all time clocks equalised to the rhythms of the mechanical clock, had obscured those facts.
Of course if we want just to ‘measure’ from a human point of view, those rhythms, a single mechanical standard of time, the second can study those cycles, and a single line that ads ‘cycles’ pegging them can represent the time duration of a being, but we loose its meaning, its form, its in-form-ation. And if we want to make a complex analysis of the whys and repetitive patterns, and organisation of those patterns we won’t be able to do it.
Humans are self-centred as all ‘organic systems’ and won’t accept to be ‘like everything else’.
Unfortunately as today human egos do NOT accept this self-evident truth and eliminate the informative properties, and certainly the capacity to gauge information of its systems.
But this has NOTHING to do with objective science but subjective anthropomorphism, as the proofs of a sentient, information, reproductive, scalar=fractal Universe are overwhelming. But precisely with the non-scientific subjective errors that creep in science given the egocentered human nature. A simple example will suffice as proof. The smallest entities known from where all others are made are quarks and electrons, the fundamental particles.
But both are described by gauging theories, meaning they behave as if all ‘gauged’ information with their spins.
And both particles reproduce constantly to the point that when you feed ‘energy’ to a quark the result invariably is the reproduction of more quarks, but we call this ‘decoupling’ and if you were to tell a physicist that ‘quarks reproduce’, he would have a laugh. Machines are also reproduced by company-mothers, and ‘enzymen catalyse their reproduction’. All reproduces and all has a ‘frame of reference’, mostly mathematical to ‘measure’ or else we would not use mathematical equations, self-centred in those centres. But, we shall NEVER accept in ‘serious=anthropomorphic’ science that we are equal to all other being, because we belong to the western tradition plagued with hidden ego rips hauling from the age of anthropomorphic religions.
We are all fractal, cyclical ‘§pacetime organisms’, which occupy a ‘size of vital space’ across several fractal scales of parts and wholes, and ‘perform’ actions≈arrows of ðime in cyclical patterns from the point of view of its singularity – a still mind-center on ‘top’ of the system, in command of a ‘still language’ that maps≈mirrors the world outside the system, trying to conserve with those actions its energy to survive and reproduce a form similar to its self.
In the graph, the Universe is a fractal (ab. ∆) system of relational space-time that reproduces the two ultimate substances of reality, spatial information (§) moulding temporal motions (ð) into superorganisms of space and time- the fundamental particle of reality.
For millennia the concept that we are made of those 2 substances, ‘yin-formation’ and ‘yang-motion’ mixed into ‘qi’ energy was only understood in philosophical terms by Asian cultures (Shiva ‘male’ god of motion and entropy, Visnu ‘female’ god of form and information, combined into the ‘hairs’ of Brahma, each being of reality, is the Hindi more mythical version).
Leibniz though started its logic and mathematical analysis with his dispute with Newton, arguing time and space were NOT an abstract, absolute ‘cartesian’ background as those the first physicists used to write its formulae (which passed from mathematical paper to reality in the ‘creationist theories of mathematical physics’, since if we wrote equations on an abstract mathematical background and maths was the language of god, it followed there should be such ‘hidden’ graph ‘printed’ on the Universe). Time and Space were the ultimate substances of reality, and there were infinite time cycles/clocks and pieces of space which our ‘mind-senses’ pegged together.
We know this to be truth since Einstein showed there are infinite time clocks in the Universe, and quantum physics showed space is ‘broken’ into quanta with energy.
Indeed, Einstein realized then that even though ‘ I am the only physicist that seem to think there are infinite time clocks in the Universe’, ‘Leibniz is right, but if so we have to start physics from scratch’… And so Newton debunked, science has been in ‘limbo’ on the understanding of its fundamental principles, for a century knowing absolute space-time is false but as nobody has restarted our study of those sciences from scratch (or rather from Asian philosophy, Leibniz and Einstein) as we shall do here.
The ego paradox though ALSO conditions scientists, which are mostly about ego and happiness as all HUMANS ARE. So the true way to do science with humble realization of our null importance in reality is seldom found among scientists ‘I know only I know nothing’ was a dictum of the highest mind of mankind, Aristotle, but this is rare.
The common case is not the relativism of the philosopher of science, this blog represents, but the arrogance of the mechanist, who applies machines to gather data and then utters hyperbolic theories of reality with his mind on the center – the Kepler’s view, the modern big bang view, where all what exists can be reduced by a simplex ‘VHod’ equation (our modern digital god), to a peanut smaller than our brain (left view).
In the graph, this is your ‘mind-ego’, the homunculus mapping of the regions of the brain and its connections.
So we are as humans HUGE hands ensemble machines, we put to use observing the universe and collecting data. Then we pump our ego with our big mouths talking nonsense which become ‘dogmatic, geniuses’ work on the nature of the universe, and that is the work of the peanut mind which has zero self-reflective capacity. And when all it is done, of course, one thing stands as well done: the details of the trees, the method of gathering data with machines. And one thing becomes still fogged and people just ignore it mostly – the brain view. they rather go to church and are told the usual thing: you are so above heavens and earth, immortal creature… never mind the forest.
Reason why humans are very good at data collection with mechanisms they ensemble but reject the big philosophical, scientific whys, as obviously they won’t cater to their ego – reality is NOT about mankind, point. Can you absorb this? Then you might go beyond the stage of 7.5 billion homunculus and their praxis on reality including science. Sorry, I insult your ego earlier, never mind you are a Nobel prize or a layman, the ego problem is common, so to save you time on reading, what you will get here is the forest view, the philosopher of science, NOT the homunculus data-gathering computer view of reality – the synthesis of it all. Which actually requires a bit of thought, not just the pedestrian ‘protocol method’ of computerized science that make us thing we are so smart as our machines are.
Now, we said already that minds, the fifth dimension which order reality is made of languages. So languages in a certain way create reality and we shall return to it when studying the grammar of languages. But in doing so they act as mirrors of a prior reality, ‘space and time’, and as such they derive from space and time, which is eternal, and was not created by a big-bang equation or a word of God.
So we must clarify those elements, by studying properly the languages that stop reality into mind space.
Let us then deal with the 0-2D of information, studying the singularity- mind paradox now from a perceptive sentient, non-mathematical, philosophical point of view, as the mind errors of biased perception make us so often think in terms of egotist theories of reality, self-centred in our languages and perspectives, which deny the vital dimensions of reality to all other beings but our selves.
We can now give the explanation of the Paradox of Galileo, which started modern science but has never been quite resolved: ‘why the earth moves but doesn’t move’. Simple, because the mind-singularity that perceives it has as a function, to create within its language a still mirror image, a focus of reality that will allow to order it and try to deform it from its ego-centered perspective.
In the next graph we can see the difference between Newton who THOUGHT the mind of man WAS the entire Universe, hence converting the Cartesian mind graph into the ABSOLUTE BACKGROUND SPACE-TIME that still lingers in science and Descartes who thought it was just of the many minds, possible with different geometries.
All what we have done till now is fair enough but external in its description. It lacks the ultimate evasive question – the will, which creates the ‘world as a representation’ biased by the entity to ‘break’ reality into the outer and inner world, and protect the survival of the inner world with those actions.
In other words, we need a mind able to perceive the whole as a whole separated from the outer world in which it interacts. And this was the understanding that started modern philosophy of science in the work of Descartes.
Descartes was not a simpleton. He was fully aware that what he had in the mind was not the whole Universe, so he expressly stated the fact, differentiating the ‘world’ of a human mind, from the infinite other worlds that exist outside, establishing in his little known book, the ‘world’, this difference, affirming that his ‘Cartesian Frame of reference’, was only that of the human mind.
So he affirmed that the Universe was the sum of infinite mind-worlds, which did not speak necessarily the same languages, and created the same mappings of reality we humans created.
Descartes was a contemporary of Galileo, and the true founder of modern science with his ‘Method of reasoning’ and the Frame of Reference of the mathematical mind, said that all what exists was made of:
– Open §pace, which he called ‘res extensa’.
– Closed, cyclical ðimes, which he called ‘vortices’.
And then he added a 3rd element, the final stroke of a genius unparalleled since the ðimes of Aristotle; after realizing that the only proof he had of the existence of those vortices and res extensa was, the fact that he perceived them: Cogito Ergo Sum. ‘I think therefore I am’.
So let us consider the final element of reality to be able to build the whole… the mind that projects and co-exists in those three scales ordering the parts into a whole and helping it through its actions to survive.
– The mind or •-point is the relative frame of reference that mapped the ∞ cycles of ðime of the Universe, reducing them to a ‘World’, to fit them into the infinitesimal volume of the brain.
•-mind x ∞-cycles = World: equation of the Linguistic Monad: ∞ Mind-Worlds in 1 Universe.
Space is the simultaneous perception of multiple vital spaces by a still mind. Thus space is virtual. The true substance of reality being its temporal motions. On the other hand the description human minds (@) make of the Universe is subconsciously biased by those ‘still, linguistic mind mappings of space’, (∫@) in which the ∞ of time motions (∆ð) is reduced and equalled to the spatial mind mapping.
This simple equation of similarity between the space perception of reality provided by a mind, and the whole Universe of moving time-cycles (as nothing is still outside the mind’s perception, being all observed in detail in perpetual motion), appeared in science as a philosophy of the Universe, when Descartes realized that what we see is NOT reality but what the mind ‘stops’ in its selective perception of all the information of reality. So the only truth we can depart from is the fact that we think and perceive still linguistic thoughts, hence we exist; making of informative perception in a still mind, the first ‘action’ of existence, even prior to motion which is unconscious of being.
Descartes astounding insight soon brought here to define mathematically, topologically and conceptually a ‘mind-singularity of order’, the ‘missing’ factor on our descriptions of reality, unfortunately was soon forgotten, and substituted by the naive realism of modern science – what we or our electronic instruments see is what there is there. But only marrying the spatial mind-linguistic view and the Universe of infinite time cycles, we can factor in all the elements and start to unknot the bias the spatial mind cast upon our objective comprehension of reality, which is our task as scientists.
In the graph, a fundamental truth of the Universe is the existence of singularities that order physical, biological an social systems, except when they are in a free, chaotic state of maximal entropy (gaseous state or dark entropy between galaxies), which cannot produce order, as they lack any ‘frame of reference’. Mental singularities, Monads, or Maxwellian Demons are the ‘missing variable’ needed to explain the whys of reality. In mathematics we call them P.o.vs.
Frames of reference, self-centred in a point, which we use as physical systems do, to calculate functions of space-time that WORK mirroring reality – hence they must exist. In that sense physical, atomic systems do indeed calculate as quantum-bit computers might do. Are they ‘conscious’? Likely NOT, as consciousness is just a self-reflection between two mirrors – what matters though is that they do process information, order territories that become time§paœrganisms and hence WITHOUT THEM there will only be entropy, not order, reason why physicists who don’t recognise those ‘poles of in-form-ation’ deny order and believe the Universe is a chaotic entropic state. YET WE OBSERVE order, so the experimental method oblige us to conclude there is a ‘darwinian automatic non-conscious selection’ of systems which develop singularities and ‘SURVIVE’ creating the order of reality.
Consciosuness would then be an unneeded dual mirror in which the first mirror perceives the spatial mapping of the second mirror, dialoguing with it (in the way I robot is consciousness by having a second brain). In the human case, the I=eye that sees space and the verbal cogito ergo sum temporal mind – the conscious languages. But it is not the verbal consciousness of man, but a mathematical consciousness which among humans only very good ‘mathematical physicists’, which can ‘see’ as musicians see ‘scales’ that provoke emotions, equations as dynamic visual forms.
So we affirm, as Aristotle, Descartes and Leibniz before us, that even though for physical measure it might be useful to equalise all rhythms of time and peg all ternary space-time beings into an absolute space and absolute time – that of the human light space view and mechanical clock, there are infinite clocks of ðime, and infinite broken §paces and we adopt the point of view of all of them.
Since there are ∞ minds, gauging information; and stopping the motions of time into the intelligence of formal space, as they try to ‘stiff’ reality into the mirror image of the language, which of course they confuse with the universe itself – and this is indeed the origin of the creationist theories of religious and scientific people, we must now debunk on firm grounds as we have a better grasp of why we see still the earth (our mind stops its motion) when objectively it is moving, why in other words we see ‘spaces’ when it is all about ‘times’.
Expansion of knowledge achieved with a proper understanding of space-time organisms.
This said of course, we are going to criticize the ‘belief’ humans have, part of its ‘ego paradox’ that reality is ‘created by words’ (abrahamic religions) or by mathematical equations (scientific religion), THE TWO main mirrors of mankind observing space and time. NOT so. Both are mirrors of the space-time Universe, and as the two first languages of human evolution as a mind-mirror of reality, they are very important, words to understand social sciences, as the natural inner language of our mind, maths, as the most efficient mirror hence used by ∞ minds, notably those who are similar to ‘points and numbers’ its units. But there is a 3rd deeper language – that of the 5 Dimensions of space-time and its properties, or ‘disomorphisms’ common to all systems of reality, which is the ‘third age of human languages’, after a young age of words a mature age of maths.
Because we can use those disomorphisms to explain as we shall do in this blog all other properties not only of all languages (we just have shown you a correspondence between Dimensions and operations) but of all species. Hence we dedicate 3 main posts, Wor(l)ds, Maths and T.œ, to study in depth the properties and laws of those languages as mirrors of time-space laws.
The falsity of ‘word’s creationism’ despite being the belief of 1/2 of mankind is rather obvious rationally. Not so the creationism of mathematical physics, which is equally ‘fundamentalist’ – read Dirac’s first affirmation that God does not exist (meaning verbal creationism) to affirm immediately that God is a Pythagorean fellow.
But how can we prove which of the 3 theories of reality, verbal or mathematical creationism or space-time realism is truth?
Obviously by proving that all what exists including the other two theoretical elements are CREATED BY ONE OF THE 3 GENERATOR LANGUAGES, EITHER WORDS, NUMBERS OR SPACE AND TIME SYMMETRIES AND DUALITIES.
So what we shall show you is that all can be generated by the symmetries, dualities and motion st-eps of the 5 dimensions of space and time: DIMENSION OF SPACE-TIME Γenerate EVENT OR FORM OF REALITY, A DIMENSIONAL ISOMORPHISM, word borrowed from group theory which means that the properties of the dimension generate similar properties in a ‘real form’.
And we shall of course as part of the Disomorphic method to show you that also the syntax, operators and forms of the other two languages come from properties of the Dimensions of space and time.
However AS ZERO DIMENSIONS mind-languages do mirror reality and in reversal of form, do influence a local smaller reality which become the territory of order of the still image it has created with its shrieking of dimensions to the final one – stream of superposed time quanta of information as the line of words i am emitting now is, ∑ti: 0D mind mirror of creation.
3 DUALITIES: FRACTAL WHOLES, CYCLICAL LINES & DIS=CONTINUOUS SPACE≈TIMES.
‘E pur si muove e pur no muove.’ Galilean Relativity.
All what you see around is a tapestry of forms that are moving (as motion is relative to the observer you will always be able to find a frame of reference in which the being moves) – nothing else is required to explain it all: ‘forms’, a concept closely related to the scientific concept of in/form/ation and ‘motion’, a concept closely related to the scientific term ‘entropy’.
Further on we can reduce reality to a single ‘element’, motion. Since when we observe any ‘form’ in detail at ‘smaller’ scales, the form also shows motion. Form in fact is merely a ‘very fast closed motion’ that seen without detail appears as a solid form. So all particles are closed motions. We shall call a closed ‘motion’, a clock-like ‘time cycle’. So we affirm all in the Universe are ‘formal motions’ tracing in-form-ative time cycles.
Information is stored in those closed ‘forms’ or ‘time cycles. In/form/ations, Forms in action are both the ‘form’ AND frequency ‘bits’ of those time cycles. And so as all what exists are cyclical forms (we shall call them, ‘fractal points’, ab. œ, •) that complete ‘worldcycles of time’, we can really reduce it all to ‘formal motions’, to time cycles.
And as any motion that ‘repeats’ its time cycle is REPRODUCING its form, its information, there is no doubt about our first principle born of the experience that all what we perceive are motions reproducing information as they move in time cycles:
In the graph, left side, ‘ðime’ clocks that measure the rhythms of reproduction=repetition and change=evolution of the Universe are always cyclical ‘r=evolutions’.
Because a time clock has both, ‘motion’ and ‘form’, both in the ‘larger scale of the cycle’ and the ‘smaller scale of the particle’ that traces it – often in rotary motion itself; we talk of a Universe made of cyclical-wave motions and particle-forms.
Look around you. All what you see are forms, we shall call ‘fractal points’ (as they become larger and with more information, the closer we come to it), MOVING in repetitive cycles (as the perform the same ‘actions’, once and again, in sequential patterns).
The universe is about those ‘cyclical points’ tracing ‘worldcycles’, ‘imprinting through the process’ its ‘wave-like forms’ on ‘lower scales’ of size, and ‘territories of order.
Reproduction of information is immediate as ‘motion’ by definition ‘never stops’, so the mere repetition of a ‘world cycle’ of a particle (a cycle of a particle in a larger ∆+1 scale of reality), implies an action of reproduction. So all motions with forms are ‘actions’ of reproduction, the purpose of the reproductive, living, organic Universe.
This essential nature of reality, as a sum of repetitive, cyclical patterns of ðime cycles, underlies all the work of science, which finds laws for those repetitions. So science would not exist if ðime clocks were not cyclical, as there would not be any way to define ‘scientific laws’.
Yet astoundingly enough given the obviousness of this principle, the human species have lost in the past centuries his understand of cyclical ‘ðime’, as physicists, a profession that started with the study of ballistics and lineal trajectories of cannonballs, simplified those cycles into Lineal ðime explained with a single numerical parameter, an artifact of measure which facilitated the calculus of speeds, distances and translations in §pace, with the formula v=s/t, but reduced human knowledge of the cyclical nature of those clocks and its natural patterns, and the ‘dimension of information’, carried in the form and frequency of those cycles.
This became the more clearly with the discovery of Relativity, and the infinite clocks of ðime of the Universe: ‘ðime bends §pace into masses’ said Einstein, who defined mass as an accelerated vortex of gravitation (equivalence principle). But not only masses and charges are Nature’s accelerated vortices of ðime. Each biological species has also its cyclical clocks ðime to process information and so do computers, which are basically ðime clocks and cyclical logic loops called algorithms.
So while humans obviously are aware of the existence of cyclical patterns of nature, because they have abandoned the proper concept of cyclical ðime changes, and its second dimension of form, of information, they cannot fully grasp the fundamental principles of the Universe: its cycles of ðime§pace, its scales of ðime speeds as §pace size (ab. ∆±i), and the ‘mind-mirrors and languages’ of information that allow systems to measure them, and interact with other beings in ðime§pace.
The concept of cyclical ðimes is not new. On the contrary, as it is evident in the left picture that all ðime clocks are cyclical, repetitive; the true mystery is how humans are so ‘dumb’, as to deny it in the modern age. Since all Asian cultures, and all western cultures till Galileo, did believe in cyclical ðimes. The word in fact still lingers in the names of our newspapers: ‘The New York Times’, ‘The Times of London’.
Moreover science would not exist if ðimes were not cyclical as ‘scientific laws’ are merely the repetition in ðime of patterns of behavior and causality.
All these truths unfortunately are hidden in the ðime equations of modern physics, so good for calculus so bad for interpretation, which need to be translated into cyclical ðime, measured by frequency (T=1/ƒ) and streamlined with a new jargon appropriate for a dual Universe, as opposed to the simplex jargon of classic absolute ðime§pace physics, that lingers in all sciences and drags its understanding.
In the left physical cycles, planetary orbits, which we humans use to measure ðime in all our ‘clocks’, which are also cyclical. People are hardly aware of this fact, since they tend not to use the ‘parameter’ of cyclical ðime, which is ‘frequency’, but its inverse, lineal duration: ƒ=1/t.
The formulae are simplified in this manner. Since ‘frequency ðime’ is discontinuous and so difficult to ‘integrate’. So physicists prefer to uncoil, frequencies into Lineal Time. For example the ‘revolutions per minute of a car wheel’, multiplied by its perimeter give us the ‘distance’: λ x v = S. And besides in this manner we achieve more information, as we get the duration and form of in-form-ation of each cycle (λ) and its frequency, v.
But if you just want to know the total length of along ðime period, you use Lineal Time durations and so you don’t need to sum all those cycles to get the lineal speed: V=s/t.
In the left graph, we can see that all physical systems, and all its ðime cycles return to its origin, creating a circle, but physicists uncoiled them and put all those revolutions one after another creating the concept of Lineal ðime – an artifact of measure, and further on equalized all the different clocks of the Universe, all the different cyclical actions of its species with a single mechanical ‘ðime clock’ elongated into an infinite duration.
Science in modern times started when Galileo realized the Earth moved in time, even if we see it as a fixed form of space.
So after much thought, he affirmed we couldn’t really distinguish motion from form. And this was called Relativity. But being a practical man, an artillery master for the Venice Arsenal, on charge of measuring the largest distance=motion of a cannonball, he didn’t think much about the ‘stillness’ of the Earth, just applied the clock and the cannonball to measure the longest line of shot. And affirmed after all the Earth was moving. And yet it is still still under my feet.
It is this paradox of the mind that perceives either form or motion, but NOT both at the same time, even if both things do exist (e pur si muove, e our no muove) what allows us to divide reality in two types of elements space and time and affirm both co-exist as two different still and go states/dimensions of reality.
Alas, this means we have just magic!, doubled the dimensions of reality as for each dimension of form=stillness=space, there must be a dimension-motion of time. This is the true principle behind relativity, through which shall rebuild the Universe of science to give it a much deeper meaning. Because as soon as we realise every motion has form the magic vanishes and reality doubles in.
We shall talk of 3 fundamental ‘relativities’ that ‘confuse’ the mind – that between smaller and larger parts, which define the 4th and 5th dimensions of entropy and linguistic information; between lineal forms (which is how the mind measures) and cyclical forms (which is on the larger view how the Universe breaks reality into closed vital spaces) and finally between ‘continuous wholes’ and ‘discontinuous parts’.
Naive realism and the one-dimensional way of humind (ab. human mind) thought tend to disregard the existence of both ‘dualities’ at the same time, and so much of the arguments on philosophy of science have been historically a false choice between ‘sizes’, ‘forms’ and the importance of discontinuous parts/individuals vs. continuous wholes/Universals.
Saturn’s rings: the 3 dualities of the fractal Universe.
So after explaining you in the previous graph, the Universe in a nutshell, we are going to develop it.
Think in a word: symmetry or duality, between space and time, forms and motions. Every form can be seen as a time motion and every motion as a time form, and that enriches a lot our depth of thought, as humans till now have failed to see form in motion and motion in form. Only mathematicians wondered why for every algebraic equation (a symmetry of space-time), there was a topological equation (a spatial solution); why for every point (a form of simultaneous time) there was a number, a time sequence, and so on.
But there are two other symmetries or dualities, worth to mention because they will come all over the place to distinguish the dimensions of space-time; that between small parts and wholes, which embodies the inverse 4th dimension of entropy and 5th dimension of mind-languages, mirrors that order reality; and the symmetry between lineal and cyclical forms, which is in great ‘measure’ a ‘measure’ of perception.
So let us explain the duality of continuous/discontinuous, which has also divided for eons thinkers in the ‘predominance of universals’ vs. those who believe in individuals.
In the graph, Saturn’s rings, first observed by Galileo, seem continuous, still and bidimensional from far away; but observed in detail they become discontinuous in motion and made of 4D sherical particles.
Moreover, what appears as a single space-time continuum in detail becomes at least 3 scales: that of the rings with cyclical motion, of its particles, the rocks that turn within them and the not seen but known scale of atoms that create the solid networks of those rocks.
The ‘present’ state of science deals mainly with the single space-time continuum of the more ‘obvious’ human scale studied in terms of ‘present’=differential motions, ∂t, with minimal latitude of time.
The 4th and fifth dimensions deal with a longer duration from the absolute past (birth of the entity) to its absolute future (its death), when evolutions of form, frequencies of multiple actions and cycles of creation and extinction happen.
Let us start then to build reality with the 3 dimensions of space and its motions in time, we shall also called arrows or cycles or actions of space-time. In the next graph, a first hint to how the 3 ‘vital dimensions of space-time’ ensemble into parts and organic wholes in all physical, biological and social systems; since there are only 3 topological forms (geometries with motion) in the Universe. So evolutionary topology the expansion of topology proposed in this form is the key discipline to understand how the species of reality are created and destroyed: In the graph we see from a spatial, simultaneous, formal perspective, ensembled into 3 type of physical, biological and social space-time organisms, the 3 ‘form of space=functions of time=topological varieties of space-time in the Universe’.
In the graph we see the 3 first dimensions when doubled in function, divided according to the ‘discontinuity of the fractal Universe’ and perceived as lineal maximal motions-functions in limbs/potentials and maximal informative storages in spherical heads/particles.
So the 3 dualities of the Galilean paradox that started science but were REDUCED by physicists to single dogmas (continuity, single scale, lineal equations and lineal time), when fully accepted as the ultimate logic dualities that co-exist in reality, explain immediately the structure of most systems in existence.
4D≈S∂ entropy and 5D≈∫T: social, fractal planes and its ‘finitesimals’.
But Galileo’s observation of reality and that of all scientists that follow him failed also into focusing scientific equations in the two other paradoxes of observation of reality soon evident with the use of telescopes and microscopes: The fact that the structure of the Universe was organic, scalar, as we large wholes made of smaller parts – giving birth to the duality of the continuous form and its discontinuous components.
This duality did not stir up the understanding of the scalar, (ab. ∆) dimensions of the Universe, those that refer to the co-existing parts and wholes of those scales, we shall terms here the fourth dimension of entropy (the disorder of wholes into its smaller parts, ‘freed by entropy), ∇, and the fifth dimension of social wholes put together by the enclosing membranes and singularity minds that focus them.
The Universe is a fractal so it has scales of size that co-exist together for which we need to add dimensions, to introduce the fractal Universe.
So besides the 3 space dimensions ≈ 3 time dimensions (seen as still in space, as moving in time) we do need to consider at least 2 more dimensions, one for the lower scales of the being, which we shall call the fourth dimension of absolute past and one for the upper dimension of the being of absolute future.
But also all systems co-exist in 3 scales of the 4th & 5th Dimension: the ∆-1 atomic/cellular, ∆-organic/thermodynamic and ∆+1 gravitational world: