‘eco(nomic)system v


Economic history

PROLOGUE: Mechanisms Vs Organisms: the supœrganisms of history.

CHAPTER 1:The Science of Biohistory – and Bioeconomics: History, Mankind an the Machine in a nutshell.

CHAPTER 2 The Life and Death of Civilizations

CHAPTER 3 The Industrial R=evolution

CHAPTER 4 I Cycle: Steam. The British Empire

CHAPTER 5 II Cycle: Chemical Energy: Age of Germany

CHAPTER 6 III Cycle: Electronics. Age of America

CHAPTER 7 2009-2050: Age of the Singularity

CHAPTER 8 The Wor(l)d Union  




Organisms or Mechanisms?

Though the purpose of this book is to explain the economical and existential crisis mankind faces at the beginning of the XXI century, in a wider sense it is about 2 different philosophies of the Universe:

—  One is called mechanism. It considers all what exists a machine, including the human being, the Universe and of course machines. Mechanism is the official philosophy of our technological civilization. It was developed initially by Galileo, whose real-life profession was that of an engineer of military devices, working for the princely salary of 1000 ducats a year for the Arsenal of Venice. Galileo was a mechanic, who started to philosophize about the Universe, departing from his job. Thus, he took the instruments of his work as the models for his cosmogony, in which the universe was compared no longer with a human organism but with a machine. Today mechanism is still the main philosophy of Economics and Physics—the 2 sciences that manufacture machines—not because mechanism is the truth of the Universe, but because machines gave power and power imposed those ideologies to the rest of mankind.

So scientists made of the machine the ‘idol of the human tribe’ that established our superiority over Nature and all organic philosophies of knowledge. Galileo’s idea that the Universe had to be observed with machines, telescopes, today evolved into cameras and clocks, today evolved into computers, instead of human senses, eyes and verbal words that describe time with past, present and future verbs, however degraded the mental organs of human beings to a secondary status. Soon, the Universe became modeled no longer as a complex organism but as a mechanism and man became an imperfect machine, (instead of considering machines imperfect organisms):

‘I should like you to consider that these functions (including passion, memory and imagination) follow from the mere arrangement of the machine’s organs every bit as naturally as the movements of a clock or other automaton follow from the arrangement of its counter-weights and wheels.’ (Descartes, Treatise on Man)

It was a radical change in history of thought. Since mechanism created the world we live in. Because all other ideologies, capitalism, techno-utopias, even Marxism, come from mechanism, the belief in the machine as the measure of all things.

—  The other great philosophy of the Universe is called organicism, as it considers all what exists an organism, the human being first, made to the image of the Universe also an organism, whose biological mind – the laws of organic science—we might call in mythic terms God.

Organicism considers the machine also a primitive evolving organism that will become one when robots acquire Artificial Intelligence. Organicism was the dominant doctrine of mankind during most of our existence, till the Industrial Revolution changed the paradigm. But precisely, because machines are becoming ‘organic’, suddenly organicism has become all the rage – as engineers study biology to replicate organic systems in machines. And so, paradoxically, the III Millennium will witness the final victory of organicism over simplistic mechanism, as the Earth, Gaia and ‘her new inhabitants’. . .  machines, become organic beings.

Indeed, the main difference between organisms and machines is that organisms possess both, a body and a head or particle of information. On the other hand, machines normally have only one of both elements in perpetual balance. They are either dominant in informative systems (computers, TVs), or energy systems (weapons, transports). As such they don’t switch behavior, becoming first informing heads and then moving bodies, as biological life does. . .  till the arrival of robots. Thus, classic machines are predictable, reliable and their simplicity makes them efficient. But the Universe turns out to be dual, based in systems that can handle and switch, in ‘feed-back cycles’, between the arrow of energy and the arrow of information.

This is the fundamental law of quantum physics, called the Principle of Complementarity between informative particles and energetic fields (so not single particles or pure fields of energy exist). In Biology it is called the Complementarity between heads/cellular nuclei of information and bodies/cells of energy, or between female, informative, perceptive beings and males, specialized energetic sub-species. Thus, most life systems have genders and all life systems have bodies with heads or cells with informative nuclei. Since heads without bodies or bodies without heads don’t exist as living species, according to the Complementarity Law.

Thus, classic machines need humans to reproduce and act as information or energetic systems, since they are incomplete beings. And so a symbiosis between classic machines and humans exist and it is beneficial to man, because it is based in the human, mental control of machines.

Yet that symbiosis no longer holds as machines become, during the IV Cycle of the Singularity, organic, autonomous robots which don’t require a human being to work and will be able to consume other machines.

So robots compete with humans, as workers=reproducers of machines and consumers that use other machines: Workers in the age of the Singularity are becoming obsolete to robots and software systems, in a process that is causing the biggest wave of unemployment since the creation of assembly lines in the 1920s.

Of course mechanism argues ‘ad eternal’ that computers will never be able to process information better than our brains, but the fact is they already do and that is why they displace workers. We can build computers that process the same information our brains process, encoded in numbers, with a few atoms of gold, while our brains need very complex masses of carbohydrates that move 3 million times slower than photonic chips do.

The creators of intelligent computers are today the stars of scientific media. They are funded by the scions of ‘money and weapons’ of our society, Wall Street and DARPA, the robotic arm of the Pentagon. Sadly enough our economic ecosystem is interested in metallic brains more powerful than ours. Why? Because we have created a series of myths and ideologies, along the historic path of evolution of metal that justify the creation of all types of machines, according to the ethic values of our ‘Technological civilization’, which consider all machines positive to mankind regardless of their lethal use (ch.9).

The change of paradigm, from a World in which man was the measure of all things, to a world in which the machine and its evolution became the engine of history, can be traced to the discovery of clocks and telescopes that made obsolete human eyes and verbal words, which had been till then our biological senses of space and time. They also brought about the ‘mechanist’ ideology of science that denies an organic Universe, built to the resemblance and likeness of man. Yet, in fact, a mechanism is a simplified organism.

Mechanism, as a philosophy of the Universe, is a simplification of the organic cosmos. Since a mechanism is just a deconstructed organism that has only energy or information organs; while Nature’s organisms are made with both, energetic systems (called bodies in Biology, machines in Economics, and fields of forces in matter) and information systems (called heads in Biology, Money in Economics and atomic particles in matter). It is only now in the XXI century when science and mathematics (fractals, non Euclidean and chaos theory) has reached a level of sophistication that allows us to return to an organic, more complex vision of the universe. It is a revolution on the making by the sciences of complexity, systems sciences and duality which this book brings to social sciences and so we have to introduce some more complex concepts of time and information that those used by physicists to fully grasp the organic paradigm from where Bio-Economics and Bio-History, the 2 new disciplines explained in this book depart.

Super-organisms of History and Economics.

‘Systems sciences will be the science of the XXI century’ Stephen Hawking

The Universe reproduces information, hence it is an organism.

The Universe can be described as a simple mechanism, with a single arrow of motion= time  or entropy as physicists do – or as a complex organism, made of 2 Complementary elements organized in networks – bites of energy and bits of information. It is the organic paradigm, used in this book to describe the economic ecosystem and the social super-organisms of history, nations and civilizations, made of humans and machines.


The Universe is a fractal that reproduces information and then self-organizes networks and systems that evolve into superorganisms in all scales of reality. This obvious fact observed in the graph – but denied by the ‘creationist’ entitled human beings who prefer to think they are  the only intelligent, living part of it to their own peril; makes it a ‘pan psychic’ organic system. But science did not have a proper formalism of its organic, fractal structure till I discovered it in the milieu of system sciences, applying it then to all systems, including human societies and machines.

The understanding that the Universe is about reproducing information and hence it has organic properties, is the main tenant of General Systems sciences – the new philosophy of science that will substitute in the XXI century as a paradigm, the earlier simplex models of Newton and Galileo, of a Universe modelled as a simple machine, due to the obvious fact that they had improved quantitative measures by adopting instead of the human spatial eye of the artist, and the verbal three dimensions of time (past, present and future) of the ethic, social writer, the first metal-eye (telescopes today evolved into digital cameras) and metal-brain (clocks, today evolved into digital computers) to measure space and time – is simple:

Man NOT the machine should be again the measure of all things, because it is the most perfect organism we know of, and the Universe is a complex super organism, made of smaller super organisms, made to its image and likeness… even if humans and its ego paradox prevent them from seeing those organic SYSTEMS AS ‘isomorphic’ organisms to themselves. Something we shall prove in this section of the post and the right down side.

The Universe is a fractal organism.

The Universe and all its parts made to its image and likeness, is a fractal that reproduces information, co-existing in multiple scales, the very essence of what science considers to be an organism, whose purpose is to ‘reproduce’, to ‘grow and multiply’ into social networks of similar cells, in scales of growing complexity from strings to neutrinos and light rays, to particles, quarks and electrons that reproduce and associate into atoms that evolve socially into molecules, cells, states of matter, and if we ‘divide’ artificially them into inorganic and organic paths, multicellular organisms,  super organisms, societies and ecosystems, geological super organisms (word coined by the founder of Geology, Hutton to define Gaia), solar systems, and societies of stars, the ‘mitochondria’ that reproduces the substances, which the informative, gravitational black hole, the ‘dna’ of the ‘gala cell’ ab=uses to reproduce its dark matter, which further organise those ‘gala cells’ into tubular networks, of some larger timespace organism of which we can see only a small part with little detail, Lainakea, seen in dynamic form in the right picture, floating in the ‘dark sea’, which if we could see, (as we observe only 4% of it), will likely be a tight network of atom-galaxies of the next ‘hyper scale’ of reality…

As this writer, author of a formal, comprehensive model of the Universe and all its parts as a fractal super organism, of which this web is its model of social sciences as super organisms, insiste for decades, all scales of reality can be model as super organisms, and the fact that humans do NOT have enough information about some of them, and there anthropomorphic ‘delirium tremens’ makes them ignore their nature to ‘come on top’ as abstract gurus of reality and only intelligent, living species, does NOT change what they are and where they are.

In the graph, as astronomers advance in their ‘perception of reality’ with ‘metal-eyes’ (telescopes) an metal-brains (computers), they start to see the vital motions in time an the structural organisation of it all. So finally they have seen the speed flows of ‘gala cells’ (the name I gave to galaxies 30 years ago, when I first modelled them as super organisms of stars, its mitochondria, evolve by black holes, its DNA-strains of information), and part of a cosmological network (strings of galaxies), which I predicted would behave as any network of super organisms, do.

The only scientific philosophy: organicism.

What is the Universe?: an organism or a mechanism? The first complex answer has taken longer to be formalised, because it requires to ad to the motions in space studied by physicists, the arrow of in-formation, of form, stored in the form and frequency of the clocks of time cycles of reality, which are along its motions in space the two elements that conform it all realities. Indeed, all what you see are forms with motion. And while physicists have reached an extraordinary dexterity calculating the motions in space of beings; we are lagging behind in the understanding on how form trans-forms itself into new forms of in-form-ation. This is not to say we need sorely a formal model of the ‘eternal philosophy of science’, we call ‘organicism’. The understanding of the Universe as a system that reproduces information, for a few basic reasons:

  1. Only an organism replicates itself without the concourse of a ‘maker of the machine’ – God in the earlier physicists’ view, now obsolete. As machines do not reproduce.
  2. Only the definition of time as the substance of reality –  cyclical motion that reproduces form allows the Universe to move, as only if motion=time is the ultimate substance the Universe never stops.
  3. Only if it is cyclical, repetitive, there are laws of science which are precisely those repetitive motions.
  4. Finally we know since Relativity that there are infinite clocks of time with different speeds (we knew it always just looking at the clocks of nature, but the expansion of physicists’ way of measuring all time clocks equalised to the rhythms of the mechanical clock, had obscured those facts.

Look around you. All what you see are forms, we shall call ‘fractal points’ (as they become larger and with more information, the closer we come to it), MOVING in repetitive cycles (as the perform the same ‘actions’, once and again, in sequential patterns).

The universe is about those ‘cyclical points’ tracing ‘worldcycles’, ‘imprinting through the process’ its ‘wave-like forms’ on ‘lower scales’ of size, and ‘territories of order.

Reproduction of information is immediate as ‘motion’ by definition ‘never stops’, so the mere repetition of a ‘world cycle’ of a particle (a cycle of a particle in a larger ∆+1 scale of reality), implies an action of reproduction. So all motions with forms are ‘actions’ of reproduction, the purpose of the reproductive, living, organic Universe.

But humans do NOT seem to be able to understand the organic Universe, and the laws of cyclical time. Why? THE ANSWER of course is in the paradox of the ego, which make us believe we are the center of the Universe, as we perceive reality as any organism does from its self-centered egoist point of view, selecting information to favor our ego, so we believe to be the center of reality and despise all other beings as mere objects to ab=use to our advantage. But this paradox has the negative side-effect of NOT fearing other species and denying them organic living laws. 

The SCALAR organic Universe: Memes and fractal planes.

‘I seem to be the only scientist who believe there are infinite cyclical clocks of time in the Universe’

Einstein, father of modern cyclical time theory, on his fight with peers to impose the old/new perennial philosophy of science of the cyclical Universe.

Let us now ground the concept of Gaia, the Earth and the metalearth as super organisms evolving in time, in MORE OBJECTIVE TERMS through the science of systems, and the discoveries about the fractal, organic Nature of the Universe, and how information is transferred between smaller scales (ab. ∆) and larger whole organisms, in ANY SYSTEM OF PHYSICAL, BIOLOGICAL OR SOCIAL NATURE.

We have to understand this: a time cycle breaks space into an inner and outer region creating a timespace organism, or information-energy system (as we have seen information and time are two sides of the same coin and vacuum space has motion and energy, so modern physics discovered that time-information and space-energy ARE the substances of which we all are made-We are ALL systems made of time clocks that carry our information (as we speak I hear the nobel prize of medicine is given to the discoverers of the laws of cyclical time clocks of human organisms), stored in cyclical heads and particles and ‘energy body waves that move’ our systems; and this duality of organic structure, has an astoundingly simple, beautiful law to order the infinite species of time cycles and spatial energy, in SCALES of organic symbiosis